LTCcovid Country Profiles

Responses to 4.08. Reforms to strengthen community-based care

The LTCcovid International Living report is a “wiki-style” report addressing 68 questions on characteristics of Long-Term Care (LTC) systems, impacts of COVID-19 on LTC, measures adopted to mitigate these impacts and new reforms countries are adopting to address structural problems in LTC systems and to improved preparedness for future events. It is compiled and updated voluntarily by experts on LTC all over the world. Members of the Social Care COVID-19 Resilience and Recovery project are moderating the entries and editing as needed.

The report can be read by question/topic (below) or by country: COVID-19 and Long-Term Care country profiles.

To cite this report (please note the date in which it was consulted as the contents changes over time):

Comas-Herrera A, Marczak J, Byrd W, Lorenz-Dant K, Pharoah D (eds.) and LTCcovid contributors. LTCcovid International living report on COVID-19 and Long-Term Care. LTCcovid, Care Policy & Evaluation Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science. https://doi.org/10.21953/lse.mlre15e0u6s6

Copyright is with the LTCCovid and Care Policy and Evaluation Centre, LSE.

International reports and sources

EU report on LTC (2021) highlights some recent reforms in LTC in Member States.

People with LTC needs can receive up to €4,000 for changes to their home (for example, to widen doors) to enable people to remain in the community for longer. (Source: Bundesministerium fuer Gesundheit – die Pflegestaerkungsgesetze; Bundesministerium fuer Gesundheit – erstes Pflegestaerkungsgesetz)

The care strengthening bills support people wishing to set up shared accommodation for people with LTC needs by providing financial support to set this up. People with care needs living in shared accommodations can also receive monthly financial support (Source: Bundesministerium fuer Gesundheit – die Pflegestaerkungsgesetze; Bundesministerium fuer Gesundheit – erstes Pflegestaerkungsgesetz)

The first care strengthening bill expanded day and night care services. These services can be used without reducing people’s care allowance or entitlement to domiciliary care. (source: Bundesministerium fuer Gesundheit – die Pflegestaerkungsgesetze)

Last updated: September 10th, 2021   Contributors: Klara Lorenz-Dant  |  


The Finnish government is currently proposing reforms to the Social Welfare Act that aim to strengthen and expand home-based care, including widening the services on offer and adopting measures to secure sufficient staff.

Last updated: December 10th, 2021


In domiciliary care, the Prime Minister announced in September 2021 the introduction of a minimum rate of €22 per hour for home care to stabilise the sector, with the potential to get an additional 3€ per hour for providers who demonstrate a commitment to improvements (e.g. around workforce training, investment in infrastructure, weekend delivery, complex care). The additional total spending for 2022 will be €240million. However, municipalities have estimated that the cost of these reforms is more in the region of €800 million.

Last updated: December 4th, 2021   Contributors: Camille Oung  |  


Contributors to the LTCcovid Living International Report, so far:

this list is regularly updated to reflect contributions to the report, if you’d like to contribute please email a.comas@lse.ac.uk

Elisa Aguzzoli, Liat Ayalon, David Bell, Shuli Brammli-Greenberg, Jorge Browne Salas, Jenni Burton, William Byrd, Sara CharlesworthAdelina Comas-Herrera, Natasha Curry, Gemma Drou, Stefanie Ettelt, Maria-Aurora Fenech, Thomas Fischer, Nerina Girasol, Chris Hatton, Kerstin HämelNina Hemmings, David Henderson, Stefania Ilinca, Margrieta Langins, Shoshana Lauter, Kai Leichsenring, Elizabeth Lemmon, Klara Lorenz-Dant, Lee-Fay Low, Joanna Marczak, Elisabetta Notarnicola, Cian O’DonovanCamille Oung, Disha Patel, Eleonora Perobelli, Daisy Pharoah, Stacey Rand, Tine Rostgaard, Olafur H. Samuelsson, Maximilien Salcher-Konrad, Benjamin Schlaepfer, Cheng Shi, Cassandra Simmons, Andrea E. SchmidtAgnieszka Sowa-Kofta, Wendy Taylor, Thordis Hulda Tomasdottir, Sharona Tsadok-Rosenbluth, Sara Ulla Diez, Lisa van Tol, Patrick Alexander Wachholz, Jessica J. Yu

This report has built on previous LTCcovid country reports and is supported by the Social Care COVID-19 Resilience and Recovery project, which is funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Policy Research Programme (NIHR202333) and by the International Long-Term Care Policy Network and the Care Policy and Evaluation Centre at the London School of Economics and Political Science. The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the funders.