LTCcovid Country Profiles

Responses to 2.01. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the country (total population)

The LTCcovid International Living report is a “wiki-style” report addressing 68 questions on characteristics of Long-Term Care (LTC) systems, impacts of COVID-19 on LTC, measures adopted to mitigate these impacts and new reforms countries are adopting to address structural problems in LTC systems and to improved preparedness for future events. It is compiled and updated voluntarily by experts on LTC all over the world. Members of the Social Care COVID-19 Resilience and Recovery project are moderating the entries and editing as needed.

The report can be read by question/topic (below) or by country: COVID-19 and Long-Term Care country profiles.

To cite this report (please note the date in which it was consulted as the contents changes over time):

Comas-Herrera A, Marczak J, Byrd W, Lorenz-Dant K, Pharoah D (eds.) and LTCcovid contributors. LTCcovid International living report on COVID-19 and Long-Term Care. LTCcovid, Care Policy & Evaluation Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science. https://doi.org/10.21953/lse.mlre15e0u6s6

Copyright is with the LTCCovid and Care Policy and Evaluation Centre, LSE.

The pandemic in Australia has hit in distinct waves, March and April 2020, July to September 2020 and July 2021. Infections have accelerated rapidly in January 2022.  Hospitalisation rates and death among recipients of aged care services have been lower during 2021 than in the 2020 waves.

The first case of COVID-19 in Australia was identified on January 25, 2020, from a man who travelled from Wuhan to Melbourne. Prime Minister Scott Morrison announced the Australian Health Sector Emergency Response Plan for Novel Coronavirus on February 27, 2020, and the first economic stimulus package on March 12, 2020. By mid-March, most states and territories were in lockdown. Cases began falling across the country in April, and on May 8, 2020, the government announced a three-stage plan to ease lockdown restrictions. Victoria entered into its second wave in late June, and by October 26, it reported no new cases or deaths.

As of the 17th of January 2022 there have been 1,378,449 confirmed COVID-19 infections in Australia, and 2,668 deaths, according to the Australian Department of Health. There are currently 712,046 estimated active cases in Australia, more than half the total since the beginning of the pandemic, showing the rapid increase in infections in just a few days. So far, deaths amount to 104 per 1 million population.

Last updated: January 17th, 2022


As of December 2, 2021, there have been 697,162 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Bulgaria, and 28,542 deaths, according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, corresponding to 412 attributed deaths per 100,000 population.

Last updated: December 5th, 2021   Contributors: Disha Patel  |  


As of February 7, 2021, there have been 69,716 confirmed COVID-19 infections in British Columbia and 1,246 deaths attributed to COVID-19, corresponding to 25.45 COVID-19 attributed deaths per 100,000 population (Source: https://resources-covid19canada.hub.arcgis.com/app/cases-cases-per-100k-population-webapp).

The first presumptive positive case of COVID-19 in British Columbia was identified on January 28, 2020. The first case of community transmission was announced on March 5, 2020. On March 18, a provincial state of emergency was declared in British Columbia, and by the end of March, all schools, personal service establishments, and dine-in restaurant services were closed. Health officials considered British Columbia to be successful in flattening the curve by late April and on June 24, the province entered phase 3 of its restart plan, where most establishments were allowed to reopen and non-essential travel within the province resumed. A second wave of COVID-19 was declared in British Columbia on October 19 and in November, mandatory mask policies and new restrictions against social gatherings were introduced. In December, Pfizer and Moderna vaccines were approved for use in Canada. The first dose of COVID-19 vaccine in British Columbia was administered on December 15. As of January 29, 2021, 129.421 vaccine doses have been administered. Current restrictions on social gatherings, restaurant services, fitness centres, and travel have been extended indefinitely (Source: https://bc.ctvnews.ca/scroll-through-this-timeline-of-the-1st-year-of-covid-19-in-b-c-1.5284929).

Last updated: November 6th, 2021


As of December 2, 2021, there have been 98,897 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in China, and 4,636 deaths, according to the National Health Commission, corresponding to 0.33 attributed deaths per 100,000 population.

Last updated: December 5th, 2021   Contributors: Disha Patel  |  


As of December 2, 2021, there have been 613,914 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Croatia, and 10,967 deaths, according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, corresponding to 246 attributed deaths per 100,000 population.

Last updated: December 5th, 2021   Contributors: Disha Patel  |  


As of December 2, 2021, there have been 134,965 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Cyprus, and 598 deaths, according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, corresponding to 49.5 attributed deaths per 100,000 population.

Last updated: December 5th, 2021   Contributors: Disha Patel  |  


As of December 2, 2021, there have been 2,193,289 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in The Czech Republic, and 33,317 deaths, according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, corresponding to 311 attributed deaths per 100,000 population.

Last updated: December 5th, 2021   Contributors: Disha Patel  |  


As of February 8, 2021, there have been 202,051 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Denmark, and 2,216 deaths, according to the Danish Health Authority, corresponding to 38.5 attributed deaths per 100,000 population.

Last updated: December 4th, 2021


As of December 3, 2021, there have been 224,195 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Estonia, and 1,810 deaths, according to the  European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, corresponding to 127 attributed deaths per 100,000 population.

Last updated: December 5th, 2021   Contributors: Disha Patel  |  


As of February 21, 2021 there have been 53,742 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Finland, and 726 deaths, according to Our World in Data. These numbers have been steadily rising since March 2020, when the first lockdown measures were announced and the first death was reported (March 20) (Source: https://drive.google.com/file/d/19z_e5j7bcPxUYh2qLBa6VwrVDVnWilv7/view). Numbers of cases, testing, and deaths are being recorded by the Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) (Source: https://experience.arcgis.com/experience/92e9bb33fac744c9a084381fc35aa3c7).

Last updated: August 3rd, 2021


As of Dec 01, 2021, there have been 7,778,575 confirmed cases of Covid-19 in France, and 120,112 deaths attributed to COVID-19 corresponding to 179.11 per 100,000 population. A summary of measures taken is available.

Last updated: December 3rd, 2021   Contributors: Camille Oung  |  


As of February 24, 2021, there have been 2,402,818 confirmed COVID-19 infections in Germany, and 68,740 deaths attributed to COVID-19, according to the RKI.
The first wave has been relatively mild, however, the second wave, experienced mostly during December 2020 and January 2021, has been a lot more severe (Source: https://www.zdf.de/nachrichten/heute/coronavirus-ausbreitung-infografiken-102.html). It is anticipated that Germany is going into a third wave as mutations are becoming more widespread (Source: https://www.spiegel.de/politik/ausland/coronavirus-angela-merkel-sieht-deutschland-in-dritter-welle-a-2e8dc0f6-88db-44aa-8432-1cc8c687dbfa).

Last updated: August 3rd, 2021


As of December 3, 2021, there have been 951,351 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Greece, and 18,325 deaths, according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, corresponding to 171 attributed deaths per 100,000 population

Last updated: December 5th, 2021   Contributors: Disha Patel  |  


As of December 3, 2021, there have been 1,134,869 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Hungary, and 35,122 deaths, according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, corresponding to 365.6 attributed deaths per 100,000 population.

Last updated: December 5th, 2021   Contributors: Disha Patel  |  


As of November 23, 2021, there have been 1,341,262 cases of COVID-19 in Israel and 8,178 deaths (Source: Clalit, 2021). According to Israel’s COVID Data Dashboard, those aged 70 and older have accounted for approximately 79% of COVID-19 related deaths in Israel so far. The pandemic was maintained at a reasonably low number of infections in Israel between February 21, 2020 (first case detected) and September 2020, with an effective first lockdown easing by May. In September 2020, the first major wave coinciding with the Jewish High Holidays resulted in a second lockdown. This first wave peaked at 6,276 cases on September 27. In tandem with a record-breaking vaccination campaign rollout, a second wave began in mid-December. The daily number of cases peaked at 8,624 on January 17, 2021, with the majority of cases due to a new, more virulent strain (Source: CGD). On November 22nd, there were only 711 new cases, assumably attributed mainly to the booster shots given to 4,054,691 Israelies.

Last updated: December 5th, 2021   Contributors: LIAT AYALON  |  Shoshana Lauter  |  


As of November 3rd, 2021 4.785.867 Italians tested positive for Covid-19 since the beginning of the pandemic, 131.560 people died from the virus, and 95.1% of deaths concerned people aged 60 or more (source: Ministry of Health).

The share of people fully vaccinated against Covid-19 is higher than the average of the European Union: 72% vs 66% respectively.

Sources:

Istituto Superiore de Sanità. Epidemia COVID-19. Aggiornamento Nazionale 3 novembre 2021.

Our World in Data. Coronavirus (COVID-19 Vaccinations), accessed 5th November 2021.

Last updated: November 9th, 2021   Contributors: Eleonora Perobelli  |  Elisabetta Notarnicola  |  


As of February 5, 2021, there have been 399,048 confirmed COVID-19 infections in Japan, and 6,135 deaths attributed to COVID-19, according to the World Health Organisation, corresponding to 4.851 COVID-19 attributed deaths per 100,000 population. Japan is among other Asian countries reporting lower infection fatality rates than other parts of the World (Source: https://ageingasia.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/COVID_LTC_Report-Final-20-November-2020.pdf). Most of the early attention on Japan was focused on the Diamond Princess cruise ship: people on board started a 2-week quarantine on February 5, 2020 (Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32183930/).

Last updated: August 3rd, 2021


As of December 3, 2021, there have been 255,402 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Lativa, and 4,232 deaths, according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, corresponding to 222.56 attributed deaths per 100,000 population.

Last updated: December 6th, 2021   Contributors: Disha Patel  |  


As of December 3, 2021, there have been 4,779 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Liechtenstein, and 62 deaths, according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, corresponding to 162.57 attributed deaths per 100,000 population.

Last updated: December 5th, 2021   Contributors: Disha Patel  |  


During the first wave of the pandemic, Southern regions of the Netherlands were hardest hit, with Carnival celebrations being one of the main catalysts. The second wave started in September 2020, and by November was most pronounced in the West, including in the large urban centres Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and the Hague. An overview of the first year of the pandemic is available here.

Sources: https://ltccovid.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/COVID-19-Long-Term-Care-situation-in-the-Netherlands-_-the-second-wave-25-November-2020-2.pdf.

Last updated: January 6th, 2022


As of February 5, 2021, there have been 80,524 confirmed COVID-19 infections in South Korea, and 1,464 deaths, according to Our World In Data, corresponding to 2.8 deaths per 100,000 population.

Last updated: August 3rd, 2021


As of December 3, 2021, there have been 1,781,957 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Romania, and 56,684 deaths, according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, corresponding to 293.91 attributed deaths per 100,000 population.

Last updated: December 6th, 2021   Contributors: Disha Patel  |  


As of December 3, 2021, there have been 1,207,728 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Slovakia, and 14,696 deaths, according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, corresponding to 269.222 attributed deaths per 100,000 population.

Last updated: December 6th, 2021   Contributors: Disha Patel  |  


As of February 21, 2021, Sweden had 631,166 confirmed Covid cases and 12,649 deaths (Source: https://covid19.who.int/region/euro/country/se).

Last updated: July 29th, 2021


National Records of Scotland (NRS) publish weekly figures on death registrations where COVID-19 was mentioned on the death certificate as either confirmed COVID-19 or suspected COVID-19. According to this data, as of the 28th November 2021, there have been 12,127 deaths where COVID-19 was mentioned on the death certificate.

Last updated: December 5th, 2021   Contributors: Jenni Burton  |  David Bell  |  Elizabeth Lemmon  |  David Henderson  |  


As of early March 2021, the United States had identified 29.5 million cases of COVID-19, and over 530,000 deaths. As of this date, the United States has been the country hit hardest by the pandemic per capita.

Last updated: July 29th, 2021


Given high economic openness and a large population, with many people living in crowded areas, Vietnam had high risks of being devastated by COVID-19 (Tung, 2020). However, Vietnam was called a ‘COVID exemplar’ by Our World in Data, who reported that by the end of 2020 Vietnam had reported only 1,465 laboratory confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 35 deaths. By comparison, by this time the United Kingdom had suffered some 72,000 deaths (source: GOV.UK) and the USA roughly 385,000 (source: CDC). Egypt, which has a similar population to Vietnam although lower population density, had suffered around 7,000 COVID-19 deaths by the end of 2020 (source: worldometres).

This relative success may be attributed to several factors. Key containment decisions were made within a few days of the outbreak; a decision which took some other governments several weeks. It is likely that Vietnam was able to act as quickly as it did due to its experience and existing relevant infrastructure, having experienced a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2003 and avian influenza between 2004 and 2010.

Vietnam’s proactive containment strategy was based on comprehensive detecting, contact tracing, and containment. Testing was scaled up in areas with community transmission, and three degrees of contacts was traced each time a positive case was identified. These individuals were placed in government-run quarantine centres. Areas where community transmission had been demonstrated were immediately locked down (source: Our World in Data). Furthermore, the population in Vietnam was relatively compliant, having high reported levels of trust in the authorities (Tung, 2020).

The second half of 2021 was less of a success story for Vietnam as a fourth, and most complicated and dangerous, wave hit the nation (Minh et al., 2021). From early June, confirmed cases began to grow exponentially and went from around 7,500 to around 1.7 million by the end of the year. This was mainly due to the emergence of the new (delta) variant, which spread quickly within hospitals in Vietnam, and also in large industrialised zones and communities. The sudden spike in community cases put a huge burden on the system; in particular on healthcare services and track and trace (Minh et al., 2021). Cumulative deaths were at 48 on the 1st June 2021, but similarly grew exponentially in the second half of the year and had reached just under 32,000 by the end of 2021. The main spikes in death were in August, early September, and December (source: Our World in Data).

To date (end of December, 2021), there have been no reported cases of the Omicron variant (source: Reuters).

References:

Minh, L. H. N., Khoi Quan, N., Le, T. N., Khanh, P. N. Q., & Huy, N. T. (2021). COVID-19 Timeline of Vietnam: Important Milestones Through Four Waves of the Pandemic and Lesson Learned. Frontiers in Public Health, 9, 1587. https://doi.org/10.3389/FPUBH.2021.709067/BIBTEX

Tung, L. T. (2020). Social Responses for Older People in COVID-19 Pandemic: Experience from Vietnam. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 63, 682–687. https://doi.org/10.1080/01634372.2020.1773596

Last updated: December 30th, 2021   Contributors: Daisy Pharoah  |  


Contributors to the LTCcovid Living International Report, so far:

this list is regularly updated to reflect contributions to the report, if you’d like to contribute please email a.comas@lse.ac.uk

Elisa Aguzzoli, Liat Ayalon, David Bell, Shuli Brammli-Greenberg, Jorge Browne Salas, Jenni Burton, William Byrd, Sara CharlesworthAdelina Comas-Herrera, Natasha Curry, Gemma Drou, Stefanie Ettelt, Maria-Aurora Fenech, Thomas Fischer, Nerina Girasol, Chris Hatton, Kerstin HämelNina Hemmings, David Henderson, Stefania Ilinca, Margrieta Langins, Shoshana Lauter, Kai Leichsenring, Elizabeth Lemmon, Klara Lorenz-Dant, Lee-Fay Low, Joanna Marczak, Elisabetta Notarnicola, Cian O’DonovanCamille Oung, Disha Patel, Eleonora Perobelli, Daisy Pharoah, Stacey Rand, Tine Rostgaard, Olafur H. Samuelsson, Maximilien Salcher-Konrad, Benjamin Schlaepfer, Cheng Shi, Cassandra Simmons, Andrea E. SchmidtAgnieszka Sowa-Kofta, Wendy Taylor, Thordis Hulda Tomasdottir, Sharona Tsadok-Rosenbluth, Sara Ulla Diez, Lisa van Tol, Patrick Alexander Wachholz, Jessica J. Yu

This report has built on previous LTCcovid country reports and is supported by the Social Care COVID-19 Resilience and Recovery project, which is funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Policy Research Programme (NIHR202333) and by the International Long-Term Care Policy Network and the Care Policy and Evaluation Centre at the London School of Economics and Political Science. The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the funders.