This page gathers information about completed or ongoing research projects on COVID-19 and long-term care. If you would like to to contribute information about your project, please complete our online submission form.
Care in times of the Corona pandemic from the perspective of those affected: a qualitative study on perceptions, ways of processing and actions of people with care needsOngoing
Contact: Dr. Katrin Ratz https://www.public-health.uni-bremen.de/%20%20https://www.socium.uni-bremen.de/home/en/
Host institution: Institute of Public Health und Nursing Research SOCIUM Research Centre Inequality and Social Policy
Project team: Katrin Ratz, Henrik Wiegelmann, Thomas Kalwitzki
View Care: The primary goal of the project is to gain insights into the current situation, the experience, the organisation of needs and coping strategies of people in need of care during the Corona pandemic. The focus is put on the individual experience and the subsequent sense definitions of the individuals. The theoretical explanations of the current situation of people in need of care are extended by making the new reality’s processing of the subjects themselves a topic. This perspective has been virtually unexamined up to now. Sociological perspectives within the framework of reconstructive social research have only been marginally represented in care research so far. This study aims to expand the methodological and content-related repertoire of previous health services research.
Persons in need of care in outpatient and inpatient facilities in four different federal states will be interviewed. The Interviewees are independently able to give their consent to participate in the study. 20 qualitative interviews are planned, which will be conducted partly face to face and partly online.
PUBLICATIONS & OTHER OUTPUTS
COVID-19 in Long-term Care Facilities - Challenges and Ressources in German Nursing Homes and Home Care ServicesOngoing
Contact: Karin Wolf-Osterman https://www.ipp.uni-bremen.de/departments/health-care-research/en/?
Host institution: University of Bremen, Faculty 11 Human and Health Sciences, Institute for Public Health and Nursing Research
Project team: Karin Wolf-Ostermann Heinz Rothgang Dominik Domhoff Anna Carina-Friedrich Viktoria Hoel Franziska Heinze Benedikt Preuß Annika Schmidt Kathrin Seibert Claudia Stolle
In a multi-phase study, cross-sectional as well as longitudinal observational data on challenges and ressources of long-term care facilities in Germany during the COVID-19 pandemic are collected through an online-survey of directors of nursing and nurse managers. Since april 2020, two phases of data collection have been conducted. Responses for t1 (april to may 2020) include 824 nursing homes, 701 home care services and 96 daycare facilities. Responses for t2 (january to february 2021) inculde 385 nursing homes, 442 home care services and 80 daycare facilities. Next to descriptive statistics on prevalence of COVID-19 among residents and nursing staff, results include numbers on changes in the utilization of nursing care services during the pandemic, on availability of protective gear, on implementation of infection control guidelines and on the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) to support social participation of residents and orgnaization of care processes.
Results of this study contribute to the knowledge base on the specific challenges and needs of long-term care facilities, their residents and staff during the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, the results can be used to initiate support by political actors and inform political decision making as well as national preparations for future comparable events. So far, results for t1 have been published differentiated for nursing homes and home care services/daycare in different journals. In addition, results on ICT use as well as an article on professional, scientific and health-servives related consequences are being published as book sections. Data from t2 is currently being analyzed.
PUBLICATIONS & OTHER OUTPUTS
Wolf-Ostermann-et-al.-2020-Corona-Befragung-in-ambulanten-Einrichtungen-in-Pflege-1012-5302.pdf (4.1 MB)
Rothgang-et-al-2020_1012-5302_a000760.pdf (4.2 MB)
Care-homes-and-Covid19-survey-of-care-homes-in-Germany-16-July-2020.pdf (289.1 KB)
Long-term care and COVID-19 - a Scoping reviewOngoing
Contact: Tine Rostgaard https://www.su.se/english/profiles/tiro0917-1.478940
Host institution: Department of Social work, Stockholm University
Project team: Professor emerita Marta Szebehely Dr. Elin Peterson
Funding information: Swedish research council FORTE
Long-term care services, in particular care homes, have been badly hit by the COVID-19 pandemic but to varying degree across countries. Between 0 and 80% of all cases of COVID-19 deaths have occurred among care home residents, while it is currently under-researched how home care users and LTC staff are affected. There is also considerable variation in the timing, sequencing and content of measures applied, on a general societal level, as well as in those applied in the LTC sector specifically, such as care home lock-downs and access to PPE and testing.
There is urgent need for policy makers and LTC provider organizations to learn from the emerging evidence, not the least in Sweden with comparably high death rates in society as a whole and in the LTC sector. Therefore, the aim of this scoping review is to identify and learn in a systematic way how older LTC users especially but also care workers and whole provider organizations are affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and the measures introduced. The review will focus on different measures and their effect on disease spreading and mortality among users and staff, as well as the effect on wellbeing and Quality of Life among users. When possible, the review will consider variation related to gender, class, ethnicity, and region in user outcomes.
We will map the emerging body of evidence, identify research gaps, and make recommendations for future research. The review is used also to inform six case studies (D, DK, ES, N, S, UK), presenting a time line of measures introduced and infection and mortality rates in LTC. In comparison to the review, this will have the country as a focus and will provide a more in-depth understanding of the relations between measures and outcomes, which will allow us to report on best practices and knowledge gaps.
The results of the review as well as the case study will be presented in two academic articles, and in a Swedish report and public event for national and local policy makers and LTC organizations.
PUBLICATIONS & OTHER OUTPUTS
Mc-COVID19 - Coordination mechanisms in Coronavirus management between different levels of government and public policy sectors in 15 European countriesOngoing
Contact: Francisco Javier Moreno Fuentes https://www.mc-covid.csic.es/english-version
Host institution: Institute of Public Goods and Policies, Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)
Project team: Project Coordinators o Eloísa del Pino o Francisco Javier Moreno Fuentes Research Team (alphabetical order) o Gibrán Cruz-Martínez o Jorge Hernández-Moreno o Luis Moreno o Manuel Pereira-Puga o Roberta Perna International team o Austria - Monika Riedel, Institute for Advanced Studies o Belgium - Jozef Pacolet, Research Institute for Work and Society, KU Leuven o Denmark - Tine Rostgaard, Roskilde University o Finland - Tyyne Ylinen, Vera Ylinen, Laura Kalliomaa-Puha, and Satu Ylinen. Tampere University & Social Insurance Institution of Finland - Kela o France - Arnaud Campéon, Blance Le Bihan, Michel Legros, and Claude Martin. EHESP French School of Public Health and CNRS. o Germany - Caspar Lückenbach, Eduard Klukas, Phillip Florian Schmidt and Thomas Gerlinger. Bielefeld University o Greece - Costis Prouskas, and Michael Goudoumas. Aktios SA o Ireland - Sara Burke, and Eimir Hurley. Centre for Health Policy and Management, Trinity College Dublin o Italy - Costanzo Ranci, and Marco Arlotti. Politecnico di Milano o Luxembourg - Robert Urbé. o Netherlands - María Bruquetas-Callejo, and Anita Böcker. Radboud University Nijmegen o Portugal - Luis Capucha, Nuno Nunes, and Alexandre Daniel Calado. Center for Research and Studies in Sociology (CIES-IUL) o Sweden - Lennarth Johansson (1) and Pär Schön (2). (1) Jönköping University, and Stockholm Gerontology Research Center. (2) Aging Research Center, Stockholm University, Karolinska Institutet o United Kingdom - England - Caroline Glendinning. University of York (emeritus).
Funding information: The Mc-COVID19 project has received funding from the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) within the framework of the CSIC-COVID-19 program.
The Mc-COVID 19 project is set to analyse the socio-sanitary co-ordination procedures in the context of institutionalized older-age care (age group that appears particularly vulnerable in this epidemic context), in Spain as well as in the rest of the EU-15. This study focuses on the articulation of resources between health and social policies, and aim to contribute to improve the effectiveness of the decision-making process and crucial aspects in the fight against the pandemic. To better understand what happened in these centres and facilitate policy learning, this study identifies the difficulties faced by institutional actors and nursing homes’ managers between January and August 2020. To this end, the research team conducted 25 in-depth interviews with managers in such centres (directors, administrators, and medical supervisors) in various Spanish regions (Comunidades Autónomas). In addition, the research group interviewed high-ranking officials responsible for both social services and public healthcare at the central and regional levels, and representatives of the trade unions and the employers’ associations of the nursing homes. Furthermore, the team examined documents issued by governmental and independent sources, together with the results of a survey elaborated by the Institute for the Older-age and Social Services (IMSERSO) of the Ministry of Health. Findings aim to be useful to inform other public policy sectors involved in crisis-related situations.
- 6 October 2020 – First report on Spain (Spanish)
- Eloísa del Pino, Francisco Javier Moreno-Fuentes, Gibrán Cruz-Martínez, Jorge Hernánez-Moreno, Luis Moreno, Manuel Pereira-Puga, Roberta Perna (2020)Informe Gestión Institucional y Organizativa de las Residencias de Personas Mayores y COVID-19: dificultades y aprendizajes. Instituto de Políticas y Bienes Públicos (IPP-CSIC)Madrid. http://dx.doi.org/10.20350/digitalCSIC/12636
- 6 October 2020 – Executive Summary of the first report (English version) https://drive.google.com/file/d/1clo_SLmygv4BJPo8ptvN02NXJHc217oo/view
- A summary of the first report is also available here: https://ltccovid.org/2020/11/19/what-went-wrong-and-what-could-be-learned-from-the-institutional-and-organizational-management-of-care-homes-during-the-covid-19-pandemic-in-spain/
- 10 case studies have been published already: https://www.mc-covid.csic.es/english-version/publications and 5 more are expected to be published on the first trimester of 2021
- A comparative report highlighting the experiences, difficulties and lessons learned in 15 EU countries – expected to be published on the first trimester 2021.
PUBLICATIONS & OTHER OUTPUTS
Impact of COVID-19 Policy Responses on Live-In Care Workers in Austria, Germany, and SwitzerlandComplete
Host institution: Johannes Kepler University Linz (AT), University of Zurich (CH), Goethe University Frankfurt (DE)
Project team: Michael Leiblfinger, Veronika Prieler, Karin Schwiter, Jennifer Steiner, Aranka Benazha, Helma Lutz
Funding information: This research is part of the of the project Decent Care Work? Transnational Home Care Arrangements, a cooperation of Aranka Benazha, Amanda Glanert, Helma Lutz, Iga Obrocka, and Ewa Palenga-Möllenbeck from Goethe University Frankfurt/Germany; Brigitte Aulenbacher, Michael Leiblfinger, and Veronika Prieler from Johannes Kepler University Linz/Austria; and Karin Schwiter, Jennifer Steiner, and Anahi Villalba from the University of Zurich/Switzerland. The project is funded by the German Research Foundation DFG, project no. LU 630/14-1, by the Austrian Science Fund FWF, project no. I 3145 G-29, and by the Swiss National Science Foundation SNSF, project no. 170353. http://decentcarework.net
Context: The measures taken to counter the COVID-19 pandemic restricted the circular migration of live-in care workers between their countries of origin and the elderly persons’ households.
Objective: In this comparative policy analysis, the impact of COVID-19 related policy measures for transnationally organised live-in care in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland is investigated.
Method: Policy measures and media debates were analysed and inquiries with care workers, representatives of care agencies, unions, and activist groups were carried out between March and June 2020.
Findings: In accordance with their institutionalisation of live-in care, Austria, Germany, and Switzerland responded differently to the challenges the pandemic posed to live-in care arrangements. However, all three countries focused on extending care workers’ rotas and re-establishing transnational mobility. These priorities subordinated the interests of care workers to those of care recipients. Furthermore, the measures remained short-term solutions that failed to acknowledge the fundamental flaws and inequalities of a care model that relies primarily on female migrant workers and wage differentials within Europe.
Limitations: This policy comparison is based on an in-depth analysis of COVID-19 related policies, supplemented by inquiries among stakeholders with whom research had been done prior to the pandemic. More in-depth interviews are required to further substantiate the findings concerning their perspectives and gain insight into the longer-term effects of the pandemic.
Implications: The pandemic has brought the flaws of the live-in care model to the fore. Countries need to rethink their fragile care policies, which build on social inequality and uninhibited transnational mobility.
Paper and presentations
PUBLICATIONS & OTHER OUTPUTS
51-430-1-PB.pdf (1,007.2 KB)
On the situation of home care in Germany during the Corona pandemic. Results of an online survey of informal caregivers of working age.Complete
Contact: Dr. Katrin Ratz https://www.socium.uni-bremen.de/home/en/%20%20%20and:%20https://www.public-health.uni-bremen.de/
Host institution: SOCIUM Research Centre Inequality and Social Policy and Institute for Public Health and Care Research (IPP) of the University of Bremen, in cooperation with DAK Gesundheit and the association wir pflegen e. V., Bremen, September 2020University of Bremen
Project team: Contact person: Karin Wolf-OstermannHeinz Rothgang, Dominik Domhoff, Franziska Heinze, Prof. Dr. Moritz Heß, Thomas Kalwitzki, Dr. Katrin Ratz, Annika Schmidt Kathrin Seibert
The coronavirus pandemic poses major challenges to many groups. One of these, however, is usually not in the focus of public interest – the informal caregivers. This study therefore investigated the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on family carers and how social distancing measures and higher hygiene requirements affect informal carers. For this purpose, more than 1,000 informal caregivers in Germany who are younger than 67 years and for whom multiple burdens from work, family and care are common were surveyed with an online questionnaire about the care situation, the compatibility of care and work and changes in their perceived burden of care as well as their state of health.
- Only a very small proportion of respondents (<1 %) are or have been infected with the coronavirus, yet the care situation has changed for 59 % of respondents.
- For 57% of the respondents, care has become more time-consuming. The burden of care has increased significantly on average, not least because professional help can no longer be (or could no longer be) used to the usual extent.
- For 71% of the respondents, the Corona virus pandemic has made it even more difficult to reconcile care and work.
- The state of health has worsened for 52% of respondents and their self-assessed quality of life has decreased.
An English summary of the findings was published here, and the full report (in German, is available here.
How Covid-19 has affected informal caregivers and their lives in Germany
PUBLICATIONS & OTHER OUTPUTS